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1 edition of Assessment of human exposures to atmospheric cadmium found in the catalog.

Assessment of human exposures to atmospheric cadmium

Assessment of human exposures to atmospheric cadmium

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Published by U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Office of Air Quality Planning and Standards in Research Triangle Park, NC .
Written in English

    Subjects:
  • Air -- Pollution -- United States -- Measurement.,
  • Cadmium -- Environmental aspects -- United States.

  • Edition Notes

    Statementby Robert Coleman ... [et al.] ; prepared for U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Office of Air, Noise, and Radiation, Office of Air Quality Planning and Standards.
    ContributionsColeman, Robert, 1946-, United States. Environmental Protection Agency. Office of Air Quality Planning and Standards., Energy and Environmental Analysis, inc.
    The Physical Object
    Pagination1 v. (various pagings) :
    ID Numbers
    Open LibraryOL17825243M


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Assessment of human exposures to atmospheric cadmium Download PDF EPUB FB2

Get this from a library. Assessment of human exposures to atmospheric cadmium. [Robert Coleman; United States. Environmental Protection Agency. Office of Air Quality Planning and Standards.; Energy and Environmental Analysis, inc.;]. Risk Assessment for Human Metal Exposures: Mode of Action and Kinetic Approaches examines the current principles of risk assessment in human metal exposures, with a focus on Mode of Action(MOA), Toxicokinetic and Toxicodynamic (TKTD) considerations, and computer models.

Derived from the highly respected Handbook on the Toxicology of Metals, Fourth Edition (), the book. Exposure to Environmental Cadmium. Cadmium is a chemical element and a natural component of the earth's crust. Human activities can increase human exposure to cadmium through mining and combustion, which bring more cadmium into the air, water, and soil.

In the sections below, we summarize sources of human exposure to cadmium in air, water, plants, animals, food, soil. identify the groups in the United States at risk from higher than average levels of cadmium exposure. Introduction: For the average American, low levels of cadmium exposure occur through diet.

Currently, these background exposures through diet are not believed to cause adverse health effects. Bhattacharyya MH. Cadmium osteotoxicity in experimental animals: mechanisms and relationship to human exposures.

Toxicol Appl Pharmacol. ; – [PMC free article] Buchet JP, Roels H, Bernard A, Lauwerys R. Assessment of renal function of workers exposed to inorganic lead, calcium or mercury vapor. J Occup Med. ; –Cited by: EPA/ Assessment of Human Exposures to Atmospheric Benzene by Susan J. Mara and Shonh S.

Lee SRI International Menlo Park, California Contracts No. and EPA Project Officer: Richard J. Johnson Prepared for U.S. ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY Office of Air and Waste Management Office of Air Quality Planning.

Cadmium is a chemical element and a natural component of the earth's crust. Human activities can increase human exposure to cadmium through mining and combustion, which bring more cadmium into the air, water, and soil.

In the sections below, we summarize sources of human exposure to cadmium in air. Visit to get more information about this book, to buy it in print, or to download it as a free PDF. A NRC report describes a 4-step analytic process for performing a human-health risk assessment, which involves hazard identification, dose-response assessment, exposure assessment.

For example, the OSHA permissible exposure limit (PEL) of cadmium fume or cadmium oxide in the workplace is mg/m 3, whereas concentrations of cadmium in ambient air are 1 x mg/m 3 in non-industrialized areas and 4 x mg/m 3 in urban areas (ATSDR ). Therefore, non-occupational exposures from air are not expected to pose hazards.

The analysis acknowledges that most human cadmium exposure comes from ingestion of food, and most of that arises from the uptake of cadmium by plants from fertilisers, sewage sludge, manure and atmospheric deposition, Specifically, the model estimated that the relative importance of various cadmium sources to human exposure is as follows (Van.

AbstractChemistry and Human Health, Division VII of the International Union on Pure and Applied Chemistry (IUPAC), provides guidance on risk assessment methodology and, as appropriate, assessment of risks to human health from chemicals of exceptional toxicity. The aim of this document is to describe dose-response relationships for the health effects of low Cited by: The Carcinogen Assessment Group's DO NOT QUOTE OR Cl'T Assessment of Carcinogenic Risk from Population Exposure to Cadmium in the Ambient Air.

This document is being released by EPA for external review MAY 1 9 19/8 oy E^^lbert, M.D, Chai rman Elizabeth L. Anderson, Ph.D. Charles Brown, Ph. Cadmium (Cd) is a toxic metal. This study was aimed to estimate the potential health risks in a Cd-polluted district in China, and examine the relationship between urinary cadmium(UCd) and Cited by: It also describes how human exposure assessment data are used in each of these disciplines Human exposure information in environmental epidemiology Epidemiology is the study of the determinants and distribution of health status (or health-related events) in human populations.

Environmental epidemiology searches for statistical associations. Cadmium, a toxic heavy metal, is widely present in food. It has been reported that chronic cadmium exposure is associated with kidney disease, osteoporosis, cardiovascular disease and cancer.

cadmium exposure and an increased risk of lung cancer has been reported from human studies, but these studies are inconclusive due to confounding factors. Animal studies have demonstrated an increase in lung cancer from long-term inhalation exposure to cadmium. EPA has classified cadmium as a Group B1, probable human carcinogen.

Doses of 1, to 8, mg (20 to 30 mg/kg) of cadmium have resulted in human fatalities, but generally, fatal poisoning from cadmium is rare (ATSDR, ).

High doses of cadmium are known to cause gastrointestinal irritation resulting in vomiting, abdominal pain, and diarrhea (ATSDR, ). Nord berg et al.: Risk assessment of effects of cadmium on human health Cadmium concentration in blood is a useful indicator of the degree of exposure in recent months.

Aft er. 'Cadmium' listed as known to the State to cause developmental toxicity and male reproductive toxicity. 'Cadmium and cadmium compounds' listed as known to the State to cause cancer; NSRL of µg/day (inhalation) is for cadmium. Therefore, atmospheric cadmium levels are highest in industrial regions.

Cadmium has also been found, albeit in small quantities, in fertilizers but the long-term application of the fertilizers can contaminate the soil. The metal has been established as a human carcinogen when ingested and : Joseph Kiprop. The health effects of human exposure to cadmium are discussed with emphases on intake, absorption, body burden, and excretion; osteomalacia in Japan; hypertension; and proteinuria, emphysema, osteomalacia, and cancer in workers.

Elevated blood pressure has not been observed as a result of excessive exposures to cadmium in Japan or the by: Vahter M () Assessment of human exposure to lead and cadmium through biological monitoring. National Swedish Institute of Environmental Medicine and Karolinska Institute, Stockholm Google Scholar Vartsky D, Ellis KJ, Chen NS, Cohn SH () A facility for in vivo measurement of kidney and liver cadmium by neutron capture prompt gamma ray Cited by: A conservative approach of using total concentration in soil to access the soil pollution would provide a sense that all the contaminant present in soil can enter the human bloodstream upon exposure.

Environmental contaminants can be reached to humans in three main exposure pathways; ingestion (dietary and non-dietary), dermal and respiratory. The role of cadmium (Cd) bioaccessibility in risk assessment is less well studied. The aim of this study was to assess human health risk to Cd through inhalation and seafood consumption by incorporating bioaccessibility.

The relationships between trophically available Cd and bioaccessibility were constructed based on available experimental by: Changes in human lead exposure were reconstructed by lead analyses of ancient teeth and bones, as lead accumulates in calcified tissues.

As a consequence of research on wildlife species as biomonitors for environmental pollution, red deer antlers were considered as indicators for temporal and regional changes of environmental contamination by pollutants such as lead and. Environmental Research is a multi-disciplinary journal publishing high quality and novel information about anthropogenic issues of global relevance and applicability in a wide range of environmental disciplines, and demonstrating environmental application in the real-world context.

@article{osti_, title = {Cadmium contamination of the countryside, a case study on health effects}, author = {Kreis, I.A.}, abstractNote = {The border region between Belgium and The Netherlands, the Kempen, was found to be polluted with cadmium. The main route of pollution had been by air but some cadmium came by way of surface-water and solid waste.

Monitoring ambient air quality for health impact assessment (WHO regional publications. European series ; No. 85) pollution – prevention and control nmental monitoring – methods assessment pollutants – adverse effect y control nmental exposure ation systems File Size: KB.

Assessment of Cadmium Exposure Point Estimation of Environmental Cadmium Exposure. The mean and median total cadmium exposures among the adult study participants were μg/day and μg/day and accounted for % and % of the PTDI, respectively. The dietary intake extreme P90 was μg/day and was % of the by: Guide to the Paul Mushak papers, Summary.

Paul Mushak was a professor, researcher, and internationally recognized expert in toxic metals and their effect on human health. Report entitled "Human Exposures to Atmospheric Arsenic" by Benjamin E. Suta. "Human Health Risk Assessment for the Coeur d'Alene Basin Extending from.

Biomonitoring is defined as the assessment of human exposure to background levels of chemicals in the environment through measurement of those chemicals, or their metabolites, in human specimens such as blood and urine.

Such an approach is designed to assess the internal dose from background exposures, rather than relying on analyzing Cited by: Toxicokinetic (TK) calculations of the exposures required to reach such tissue mass fractions have previously been used in risk assessment of cadmium exposures in working environments, as well as in general environments, for example by IPCS, (see also Nordberg et al., ).

The toxic action of cadmium in kidney cortex cells is. A PBPK model for cadmium was used to assess population exposure to cadmium in the Northern Campine region of Belgium. This region is characterized by historical pollution from non-ferrous industry, resulting in elevated exposures to cadmium and other metals in the population.

The possibility of more widespread contamination and greater mobility of cadmium in the environment on the one hand and the advent of new data concerning the carcinogenicity of cadmium on the other, make it timely to review the "state-of-the-art" in human risk identification and assessment, and this is essentially the aim of the present volume.

Cadmium Recovery Workers (Cadmium) Kidney Study Background. InNIOSH did a study to look at the kidneys of cadmium workers. 45 current and former workers took part. This study is completely different from the mortality study that NIOSH did.

Even if you were not in the kidney study, the findings probably apply to you and other. Cadmium Cadmium is present at very low levels in a wide variety of food, and food products account for more than 90% of human exposure to cadmium, except in the vicinity of cadmium-emitting indus-tries.

Nevertheless, poisoning due to cadmium in food is rare. The main food sources are the kid-neys of animals, which are generally higher in. In this research, we investigated the public health risks associated with atmospheric exposure to PM for different subpopulations (black, white, Hispanic, youth, adults, and elderly) in the Washington, DC area.

Washington, DC has long been considered a non-healthy place to live according to the American Lung Association due to its poor air quality. This recognition clearly Cited by: Cadmium is a more common occupational hazard than an environmental contaminant but community exposures are possible.

Acute toxicity is usually experienced in the gastrointestinal system. The principal chronic toxic effect is on the kidney. Cadmium has a long biologic half life in humans. Elevated urine cadmium values are indicative of renal damage. Cadmium (Cd) has been in industrial use for a long period of time.

Its serious toxicity moved into scientific focus during the middle of the last century. In this review, we discuss historic and recent developments of toxicological and epidemiological questions, including exposition sources, resorption pathways and organ damage by: The following webpages provide additional information on the health effects of cadmium.

OSHA Brief - Medical Evaluation of Renal Effects of Cadmium Exposures. OSHA, (August ). Report on Carcinogens (ROC). U.S. Department of Health and Human Services (DHHS), National Toxicology Program (NTP).

An assessment of the human health effects associated with diets based on organic food production must rely on two sets of evidence. The first set of evidence is the epidemiological studies comparing population groups with dietary habits that differ substantially in regard to choices of organic v.

conventional by: Cadmium (Cd) is a widespread environmental toxic contaminant, which causes serious health-related problems. In this study, human intestinal cell line (Caco-2 cells) and normal human liver cell line (HL cells) were used to investigate the toxicity and bioavailability of Cd to both cell lines and to validate these cell lines as in vitro > models for studying Cd accumulation and Cited by: life ambient water quality criteria for cadmium in order to reflect the latest scientific information.

The updated criteria account for many new laboratory aquatic toxicity tests with cadmium published since EPA’s criteria document.

In addition, the effect of total hardness on cadmium toxicity was also revised using the newly acquired data.